Newborn Care

Expect frequent feedings every 2-3 hours, 16-18 hours of sleep per day, and possible mild jaundice. Regular pediatric visits are important for monitoring health and growth.

Look for steady weight gain, about 6-8 wet diapers a day, and general contentment between feedings. 

Newborns typically sleep in short bursts due to frequent feeding needs. Always place them on their back to sleep to reduce the risk of SIDS. 

Newborns typically need to be fed every 2-3 hours. However, it’s important to feed on demand, meaning feeding your baby whenever they show signs of hunger, such as increased alertness, mouthing, or fussiness.

Yes, newborns usually sleep between 16 to 18 hours a day, divided into short periods of 2-4 hours at a time. Sleep patterns vary widely among newborns and will gradually become more predictable over time.

First, ensure they aren’t hungry, need a diaper change, or require comforting. Sometimes, newborns cry even if they are not experiencing discomfort; this may be a way to de-stress. If crying persists and you’re concerned, consult your pediatrician.

Signs that your baby is feeding well include regular soiled and wet diapers (about six wet diapers and at least three bowel movements per day by day five), steady weight gain after the first week, and alertness when awake.

Keep the umbilical cord stump clean and dry until it falls off on its own (usually within 1-3 weeks after birth). Fold diapers below the stump, avoid submerging it in water, and only give sponge baths during this time.

In India ,Newborns should receive their first vaccines before leaving the hospital, including the Hepatitis B vaccine , BCG and Oral Polio Vaccines. Schedule follow-up appointments with your pediatrician to keep up with the immunization schedule.

Sponge baths are recommended until the umbilical cord stump falls off and the area heals. Use warm water and a soft washcloth to gently clean your baby’s body and scalp.

Always place your baby on their back to sleep on a firm mattress, without any pillows, blankets, or toys in the crib to reduce the risk of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome).

Schedule a first check-up within 2 to 3 days after discharge from the hospital. Visit the doctor if your baby shows signs of illness, such as fever, persistent crying, feeding difficulties, or lethargy.

Engage with your baby through talking, singing, and playing. Provide plenty of skin-to-skin contact and ensure they have time to move and explore safely. Regular check-ups will also help monitor and support their development.

Any sudden changes such as drastic feeding patterns, unusual sleep disturbances, signs of dehydration, or fever warrant immediate medical attention.

Common Newborn Medical Conditions

Jaundice is common in newborns and usually appears within the first 2 to 3 days of life. Keep feeding your baby regularly to help eliminate excess bilirubin. Sunlight may aid in reducing bilirubin levels. If your baby’s skin appears more yellow or if jaundice spreads or persists, consult your pediatrician, who may recommend phototherapy or other treatments.

Yes, newborns often develop various rashes, most of which are harmless and disappear on their own. Common rashes include milia (tiny white bumps) and erythema toxicum (red rash with small white or yellow dots). However, if a rash is accompanied by other symptoms like fever or appears to be painful, consult your pediatrician.

Colic is characterized by prolonged periods of intense, unexplained fussing and crying in a healthy baby. To help soothe a colicky baby, try different calming techniques, such as rocking, swaddling, using a pacifier, or gentle white noise. If symptoms persist, discuss with your pediatrician to rule out medical causes.

Newborns, especially those who are breastfed, might not have a bowel movement every day. However, if your baby appears uncomfortable, has hard stools, or it’s been a few days without a bowel movement, gently massage their belly, cycle their legs, or give them a warm bath. If constipation persists, consult your pediatrician.

It’s normal for newborns to spit up small amounts of milk after feeding. Ensure your baby is burped properly and held upright after feeds. However, if vomiting is forceful, frequent, or your baby appears in pain or dehydrated, seek medical advice as these could be signs of a more serious condition.

Newborn’s might do very frequent motions, sometimes after each feed that is normal. If your newborn has frequent, watery stools, it could be diarrhea. Keep your baby hydrated and monitor for signs of dehydration. If diarrhea persists, contains blood, or if your baby has a fever, contact your pediatrician.

Issues in Preterm and Low Birth Weight Babies

Preterm babies might experience respiratory problems, difficulty maintaining body temperature, underdeveloped feeding skills, and higher susceptibility to infections. Regular follow-ups with healthcare providers are essential for monitoring their growth and development, and addressing any medical issues.

Low birth weight babies need extra care to avoid infections, maintain body temperature, and ensure adequate nutrition. Frequent, small feedings might be necessary. Skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) is beneficial for warmth and bonding. Always ensure regular check-ups to monitor their health and development.

Preterm babies may not be able to breastfeed effectively due to less developed sucking reflexes. Try using a breast pump to express milk and feed it with a small spoon or feeder, under the guidance of your healthcare provider. Specialized neonatal care and regular pediatric visits are crucial.

Regular visits to your pediatrician are essential to monitor growth and development. Developmental milestones might be achieved at a different pace compared to full-term babies. Your pediatrician can provide specific guidance and support based on individual health assessments.

Infant Health

Follow the immunization schedule recommended by your pediatrician, typically starting at birth and continuing through till 10 years.

Look for milestones like smiling, cooing, sitting, crawling, and babbling. Consult your pediatrician for a comprehensive developmental checklist. 

Common illnesses include colds, ear infections, and gastrointestinal issues. Prevent them with regular hand washing and vaccinations.

Toddler Development

Engage in frequent conversations, read together daily, and encourage expressing thoughts and feelings. 

Use consistent, age-appropriate rules and consequences. Positive reinforcement and time-outs can be effective.

Offer a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, and dairy. Limit sugary snacks and drinks.

School-Age Children

Foster social skills, basic self-care, and understanding of routines. Discuss school expectations.

Teach them to speak to a trusted adult if bullied. Encourage open communication and reinforce their self-worth.

Look for trouble with reading, writing, math, understanding directions, or concentration. Consult teachers and your pediatrician for assessments.

Adolescent Health

Engage in open, non-judgmental conversations. Encourage sharing feelings and seeking professional help if necessary.

Teens need about 8-10 hours of sleep per night. Encourage a consistent sleep schedule and limit screen time before bed.

Promote self-esteem by appreciating their talents and qualities. Encourage healthy habits for health, not appearance.

General Health Questions

Seek medical advice for persistent symptoms like high fever or difficulty breathing. Manage minor issues like mild colds at home.

Use childproofing, teach safety rules, and supervise children, adapting strategies as they grow.

Set age-appropriate limits, promote physical activities, and encourage screen-free family time.

Emergency Situations

Learn basic first aid and CPR for situations like choking, severe allergic reactions, and head injuries. Keep emergency numbers accessible.

For cuts, apply pressure and bandage. For burns, run cool water over the area. Seek medical advice for serious injuries.

Call immediately for unresponsiveness, difficulty breathing, seizures, severe allergic reactions, or major injuries.

Nutrition and Exercise

Offer healthy foods, set regular mealtimes, and be a role model in eating habits.

Tailor activities to age: play for toddlers, sports or dance for older children, and     regular exercise routines for teenagers.

Limit to 1-2 hours a day for older children and less for younger ones. Promote active and creative play outside of screens.

List of typical tests performed on newborns

This test is conducted at 1 and 5 minutes after birth to evaluate the baby’s heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, reflex response, and skin color. The score helps assess how well the baby tolerated the birthing process and how well they are adapting to the outside environment.

Within the first 72 hours of birth, this thorough examination is carried out to check for any obvious signs of health issues.

A hearing test is usually performed before the baby leaves the hospital to detect early signs of hearing loss.

Performed typically within 48 hours after birth, this involves taking a small blood sample from the baby’s heel to test for various genetic disorders, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and metabolic disorders.

This screening, using pulse oximetry, measures the oxygen level in the baby’s blood. A sensor placed on the baby’s skin helps detect if low oxygen levels indicate a congenital heart defect.t

Measured to assess the risk of jaundice, high levels of bilirubin can lead to brain damage if not treated promptly.

This comprehensive screening checks for additional metabolic disorders that could affect the baby’s long-term health, supplementing the heel prick test.

The baby’s blood type, including ABO and Rh factor, is determined. This is important to know in case the baby needs a blood transfusion or if there are concerns about Rh incompatibility with the mother, which can lead to jaundice.|

This test is important for identifying issues with the eyes, such as cataracts or other abnormalities that can impair vision. A light is shone into the baby’s eyes to check if the reflection from the retina is normal. Any abnormality in the red reflex can indicate eye health issues that require further investigation.